Logical levels, or 1 isn't equal 1
The theory of digital circuits in terms of methods of representation of logical states is trivially simple. In the most commonly used so called positive logic - zero means low state (L), while the voltage equal to supply voltage (e.g. 3.3 V or 5 V) corresponds to logic one, i.e. high state (H). So much theory; practice, as usual, is much more complex. Every digital circuit correctly interprets the input voltages within the range specified by the manufacturer, and the same is true of the output signals, which during normal operation cannot exceed a certain narrow range. However, if one circuit (e.g. microcontroller) would be supplied with 5 V, and the other with 3.3 V - it is necessary to use a voltage converter (also called a logic level converter), which will not only ensure proper communication between particular circuits, but also protect lower voltage circuits from potential damage by too high input voltages.
Types and parameters of converters levels of logical
The basic division of voltage converters is based on in which (how many) directions these components can transmit digital signals. Many converters transmit digital signals only in a specific direction, although some designs are able to work correctly regardless of which way the information is transmitted (i.e. which circuit is the transmitter and which the receiver). This is how, among others, very simple but highly efficient voltage converters with a design based on low-power MOSFETs work. Apart from the direction of operation, the key parameters of each converter are: the number of channels, acceptable voltage levels on both sides, as well as the maximum frequency of transmitted signals and - in some cases - propagation times (i.e. the delay between a change in the signal at the output in relation to the corresponding change in the input of a given channel).
Voltage converters at Botland store
In this category you will find a range of very useful modules, perfect for use both in prototype circuits and target solutions. All voltage converters are offered as universal modules with convenient goldpin connectors (soldered or self-assembled) - and ready to use with connecting cables, available in our shop in practical kits. Apart from converters designed to work with digital outputs and inputs, we also have specialised modules allowing I2C communication. These modules (e.g. PCA9306) take into account the specifics of the physical layer of the I2C interface and enable seamless, stable cooperation of systems with different supply voltages.