The breakthrough discovery of LED technology. What have we gained?
LEDs are increasingly replacing standard bulbs, including halogen bulbs, which for a long time have been considered the best solution in terms of economy, aesthetics and safety. Initially, LEDs did not enjoy such a high recognition, because they differed significantly from those we can use today. They did not emit enough light. They were used only for alternative purposes, replacing bulbs and fluorescent lamps in some situations. With the development and improvement of LED technology, better diodes began to appear, showing more and more ability to illuminate the environment and objects.
Modern LEDs are characterized by a longer service life, we can use them up to 50,000 hours, which means several times longer operation than in the case of classic light bulbs. If we use LEDs daily for 8 hours, there is a chance that they will serve us even for 20 years. Moreover, LEDs are extremely efficient. They use much less energy than fluorescent or incandescent bulbs. Their luminous efficiency is estimated at 80-90%. By this we mean that as much as 80-90% of the energy that is supplied to the device is used by them. The losses are therefore 10-20%. For comparison, the efficiency of an ordinary light bulb is 10% maximum. LEDs are commonly used for materials with greater sensitivity to heat. This is because they give off small amounts of heat, so they can have direct contact with different materials and people. They are also resistant to impacts and mechanical damage, so they are used in places exposed to possible acts of vandalism, destruction or malfunction. In the production of LEDs, no materials harmful to humans and the environment are used. Among other things, mercury, which poses a very high risk to our health and even life, has been abandoned. This makes it safe for humans and environmentally friendly.
How do LEDs work?
The process of operation of LEDs uses electroluminescence technology. It consists in the production of light by recombination of holes in conductors and electrons. In this structure there are enriched areas where there are more electrons and holes, i.e. these holes. Electrons from the N region (electrons) recombine with holes located in the P region (holes). In the conductivity band there are free electrons, while in the valence band there are holes. Energy is created, which is emitted as a photon of light. What is the electromagnetic wavelength depends on the energy gap, i.e. the distance between the conductivity band and the valence band.
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