Principle of the DC motor
DC motors are made of many elements, including permanent magnets. They are arranged in a stator and winding, which is connected to a packet of copper sheets, forming a rotor. These are the basic components of a DC motor. The rotor must be set in motion, which is done by means of carbon brushes, which have direct contact with the commutator. The current can only flow when the rotor winding is energized. The current produces a magnetic field which sets the rotor in motion. The rotation is maintained in a continuous, unchanging motion, which takes place in one direction by reversing the direction of the magnetic field generated in the circumference of the rotor. This is how the DC motor works and thus sets the specific elements of a device, equipment, machine or system in motion. The whole process is very effective and efficient. High quality DC motors, on the other hand, are characterized by high reliability and long service life. For these reasons they are so popular.
How to choose a DC motor?
We can choose from several types of DC motors, among which there is a commutator motor characterized by a simple design and already known to the electronic industry technology. They are also available at an attractive price, which also makes them a popular choice for robotics and electronics projects. Due to their good quality of work they are also used by professionals. We can supply DC motors with voltage, which comes from the mains adapter or battery. The speed depends on the voltage, it will be higher with a similarly higher voltage. If we reverse the polarity of the battery or power supply, the direction of rotation of the motor will change. The PWM controller is designed to regulate the full range of motor rotation, and it is worth to decide on it if it is necessary to regulate the motor rotation during operation.
When choosing a DC motor, you need to take into account a few key parameters that determine its functionality and proper fit to the project. Very important is the power supply voltage, which must not be too low, because it will prevent the motor from starting. If it is too high, it can damage the rotor or stator. If we increase the load on the motor shaft, an additional heatsink should be used. Its task is to increase the heat dissipation area. When purchasing, also pay attention to the motor speed, which is always adjusted to the design parameters of the robot or machine. The higher the speed, the higher the efficiency of the engine. We will reduce the engine speed by adding gears. You need to know that the torque determines the acceleration of the engine. Moreover, the possibilities and area of use of the robot, machine or device depend on it, so it plays such an important role.