Arduino Opta WiFi - mikroPLC driver - AFX00002
Arduino Opta WiFi - mikroPLC driver - AFX00002
Filament Polymaker PolyTerra PLA 1,75mm, 1kg - Savannah Yellow
BleBox SwitchBoxD DIN - 230V WiFi relay 2x devices - Androis/iOS app
Raspberry Pi Global Shutter Camera IMX296 1,5Mpx - for Raspberry Pi
Filament Polymaker PolyTerra PLA 1,75mm, 1kg - Sakura Pink
Slim keycaps - black - 10pcs - Adafruit 5111
Measuring adapter Voltcraft PM-45
Tag for the NotiOne locator - various colors
Filament Noctuo PETG 1,75mm 0,75kg - Blue
LED RGB 12mm WS2801 chain digital addressed - 25pcs - Adafruit 322
Romi Chassis Motor Clip - Black - 2pcs. - Pololu 3520
Step-Up/Step-Down Voltage Regulator S10V3F9 - 9V 0,3A - Pololu 2095
Step-Up Voltage Regulator U3V40F7 - 7,5V 4A - Pololu 4014
PaPiRus Hat - 2.7"e-paper display overlay for Raspberry Pi 3/2
Qwiic Boost - SparkFun SPX-17238
Soldering station Zhaoxin 936DH 75W
Voltageconverters are integrated circuits (or special circuits composed of discrete elements) used to change the level of logical voltage. Their application is primarily to allow the combination (within a single device) of integrated circuits operating at different voltage levels. While some circuits (e.g. STM32 microcontrollers) may, under certain conditions, operate outside their standard voltage range, in the vast majority of cases it becomes necessary to use converters, also known as logic level shifts.
TXB0108 - two-way, 8-channel logic converter - Adafruit 395The module is based on a TXB0108 system, it allows you to exchange data between systems that use the most popular voltage levels: 3.3 V and 5V. It has eight channels, it...
8-channel bi-directional logic level converterThe module allows you to exchange data between systems that use the most popular voltages: from 3.3 V to 5.5 V and vice versa. Eight channels allow for connection of various...
Logic level converter 3,3V / 5V - UART - Iduino ST1167The module allows to exchange data between systems that use two popular voltages: 3.3 V and 5 V Ensures the connection of the UART interface.
Logic level bi-directional converter, 4-channel - Pololu 2595Miniature (13 x 10 mm). the module allows to exchange data between systems that use the most popular voltage levels ranging from 1.5 V to 18 V and Vice versa. Four channels to...
Logic level converter I2C PCA9306 - SparkFun BOB-15439The module allows bidirectional communication between circuits using different voltage levels for I2C and SMBus. PCA9306 converts voltages from lower range from 1.2 V to 3.3 V...
Logic level bi-directional converter, 4-channel - SparkFun BOB-12009The module allows to exchange data between systems that use the most popular voltages levels: 5 V and 3.3 V and 1.8 V and 2.8 V. Works in both directions simultaneously. It has...
Logic level transmitter TXB0104 bi-directional, 4-channel - SparkFun BOB-11771The module allows to exchange the data between systems that use the most popular voltage levels: from 1.2 V to 3.6 V for VCCA inputs, and from 1.65 V to 5.5 V for VCCB inputs....
Pixel Boost module - 3.3V / 5V voltage buffer for WS2812B diodesThe module is used to control the WS2812B LEDs, in the case of a microcontroller running on voltage 3.3 V. It includes a buffer that allows you to convert voltages. Module...
4-channel logic level converterThe module allows to exchange data between systems that use the most popular levels of voltage: 5 V <-> 3.3 V and 3.3 V <-> 1,8 V. It works in both directions simulatneously....
Voltage converter 3-5.5V to 3.3V 2A - TPS62827 - Adafruit 4920Voltage converter equipped with TPS62827 chip. It allows to obtain from input voltage in the range of 3 V to 5.5 V an output value of 3 .3 V with a current of 2 A . It...
SparkFun Level Shifter - Bi-directional Logic Level Converter - 8 Channel - TXS01018E - SparkFun BOB-SparkFun Level Shifter is an 8-channel, bidirectional logic level translator equipped with the TXS0108E chip from Texas Instruments. It allows you to switch logic...
The development of digital technology has forced a change in the voltage standards in which newly manufactured ICs work. For many years, the standard for almost all digital electronics was the TTL system - both simple logic gates and the most complex microprocessors at the time worked on the assumption that the low level (L) is indicated by voltages from 0 V to 0.4 V and the high level (H) - from 2.7 V to 5.5 V. A considerable asymmetry resulted directly from the design of the input and output circuits of these circuits, based on classical bipolar transistors (as well as special multi-emeter transistors, but not differing in basic parameters from single BJT structures).
It is worth adding that the above mentioned logical levels concerned output signals - the inputs could work in a wider range, 0..0.8 V(L) and 2..5 V(H) respectively. The difference between the corresponding limits is the so-called switching margin - its relatively large width allowed for reliable cooperation of one output with many inputs, which - consuming some non-zero direct current - caused its load and, as a result, shifted the actual voltage on a given line towards the "center" of the range. Thus, for proper operation of the whole system, it was required that on no digital line the voltage - in any situation - should exceed the range of acceptable input voltages. The actual switching threshold was therefore somewhere between 0.8V and 2.0V - its exact value was different for different units, but the tolerance had to be accepted by all systems, described as TTL.
Today, it is difficult to identify one common standard of tensions. It is usually assumed that the margin is symmetrical and is usually 30% of the supply voltage (for both low and high levels). For example, a 5V power supply system can interpret voltages not exceeding 1.5V as low state, and as high state - from about 3.5 to 5V. This means that the output of a system supplied with 3.3V may not have a chance to properly control 5-volt inputs. In such cases a 5V 3.3V converter becomes necessary. Very often used nowadays logic level converters allow to choose the direction of the transmitted signal, although some versions automatically "recognize" which side of the circuit is the input and which side is the output. A willingly used solution is a circuit consisting of low-power MOSFET field transistors and a few resistors, determining their operating point - this design works perfectly well not only in "simple" situations (e.g. when connecting some 3-volt sensors with Arduino 5-volt UART interface), but also... in circuits based on I2C. The presence of separate pull-up resistors on both sides of the system ensures trouble-free cooperation of both devices, supplied with different voltages.